Formative Assessment.


  1. Ethan
  2. Descent from “The Cross”
  3. Sketchbook Studies
  4. 2 tone studies
  5. Framed Painting




  1. Frank Auerbach
  2. Francis Bacon
  3. Alberto Giaccometti
  4. Graham Crowley
  5. Gustave Caillebotte

Nicholas Mirzoeff – Bodyscape: Art, Modernity, and the Ideal Figure

c26ed130fcf3ca81d97ec79f0329b866When looking at attitudes and ideologies of previous theorists on the ideal human form, Mirzoeff’s ‘bodyscape’ came of great aid. The book focuses on the arguments posed by previous ages on the search that Western art has indulged itself in for the utopian figure, entwining it with the contemporary ideas of looking at more Avant-Garde bodily forms.

I was intrigued by Mirzoeff’s in depth explanation about the Renaissance’s search for the Utopian figure and the remnants of how culture pursues that today. Mirzoeff uses the Vitruvian man as a key example of this, with its geometric forms. But then Mirzoeff contravenes this by asking ‘how can this be an example of the perfect form when the subject is incomplete?’ and explains that the body itself is spatial, and not merely an outline

I personally found the book particularly interesting to read due to the relevance it has to my project as coming from a traditionalist portrait artist’s background, and the evidence and arguments raised allow me to look at other beliefs in my research. Although the book was highly relevant, I found the book rather dense and at times difficult to comprehend.

The Body In Contemporary Art – Sally O’Reilly

9780500204009_21190I decided to begin my research into the ideal body by looking at how art culture has decided to interpret the human anatomy in a modern era. The book gives a plethora of artists which have their work surrounded around the body, holding different topics such as feminism and technology used to incorporate these artworks.

After reading the book I felt that there was plenty of resources and avenues to further my research, yet I felt that the book didn’t give enough information as to why these practitioners explore the human form, nor as to what makes them significant. For example, when writing about Marc Quinn’s ‘Genomic Portrait’, O’Reilly gives a detailed account into the processes that went into creating the artwork, but fails to mention the conceptualism behind the portrait making it a ‘true’ representation of the body, or fails to offer any alternative artists along the lines of using human matter into their work, and therefore I feel the subject of the body was too literal.

Marc Quinn – ‘A Genomic Portrait: Sir John Sulston”

by Marc Quinn, sample of sitter's DNA in agar jelly mounted in stainless steel, 2001

by Marc Quinn, sample of sitter’s DNA in agar jelly mounted in stainless steel, 2001

In this article I intend to scrutinise the use of metaphor in the art piece “A Genomic Portrait: Sir John Sulston” by Marc Quinn, and assess whether regarding it as a portrait is consistent or even relevant in today’s art culture. Coming from a portrait artist’s background, I find it interesting to delve into the interpretations of portraiture in modern art and how these conceptualisms are metaphors for the human form itself, constantly chanmging oour perception on what we regard as portraiture.

In Quinn’s Exhibit, he has extracted DNA from leading geneticist Sir John Sulston, and using the growth of bacteria onto agar jelly it creates a unique arrangement onto the gelatine. Although the finished product in a literal sense is abstract, the piece could be considered more realistic that any other paintings exhibited in the National Portrait Gallery. This is down to the work actually being part of the ‘sitter’, and through this donation, not only do we get an outline of the processes that led to the creation of Sir John Sulston, but it can also be said that this is a representation of parents, grandparents and other ancestors in his immediate bloodline.

This solidarity of the layout of the bacteria and its uniqueness is what puts itself forward as a portrait, in the same way DNA sequencing would give a unique personal coding, and using this coding you can get a true representation of the person. On the other hand, this just makes the DNA sequence a number, and loses any true physical resonance of the person. In addition to this, the representation obtained using coding will never truly be accurate to the subject duie to environmental changes, such as scarrification.

However, this is not the first time an artist has ‘given themselves’ to a piece of work in order to add conceptualism to the piece. Italian Artist Pierro Manzoni exhibited cans of his own faeces entitled “Artist’s Shit”, which questioned the commercialism in modern art at the time, which questioned the commercialism in modern art at the time, asking whether it is the art itself or the name attributed to it which makes the work successful. Artists such as Andy Warhol and Marcel Duchamp have also produced work, using their own urine/semen to create paintings. Therefore it raises the question – are these works of art any less relevant in representing the subject than Quinn’s? Although it can be argued that the processes taking place on the Agar are unique to any other replication, and this concept of personal identification is what seperated it from the work mentioned.

In conclusion, I believe that it is the physical presence of the subject in Quinn’s work, and most importantly the arrangement of the bacteria onto the work that makes the piece successful in terms of portraiture. It is that unique formation on gelatine which has been shaped individually by the DNA sample, and unlike any others. In the same way a person’s mobile phone has been manipulated to fit its owners identity and preferences, or a clay pot that is hand moulded leaves imprints of the sculptor, it is this physical presence that makes it a true portrait, and not the unique coding or merely an artist giving their own flesh and blood to the work that makes it successful

Sketchbook studies

Although my work has now become more about representing the human form through sculpture and 3D form, I still regularly keep my sketchbook handy and note quick studies of still life, portraiture and landscape. The practice of having a small sketch/notepad I feel is very important as an artist as it keeps the mind aware of composition, and improves mark making and general ability to draw. It is also just pleasing for me to just be able to pull out a pencil and just reflect on what I see and give my own personal representation.